Volunteer Stories: From Amnesty International to Wales for Peace

Emily Blower is a Wales for Peace Volunteer and Amnesty International Member.  Originally from London, Emily is used to activism being quite visible and she is looking forward to uncovering what activism looks like in North Wales.

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The non-profit organisation, founded in 1961 by the London lawyer Peter Benenson. It was a reaction to two Portuguese students who were jailed for seven years for ‘illegally’ toasting to liberty. This news story, like many others, did not make headlines but it did provoke disdain within Benenson. Even worse was the fact that there were not any opportunities within the community to act on this emotion in attempt to make a change.

‘Open your newspaper any day of the week and you will find a story from somewhere of someone being imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government … The newspaper reader feels a sickening sense of impotence. Yet if these feelings of disgust could be united into common action, something effective could be done’

In founding Amnesty International (AI), Benenson has provided people with the chance to unite and act upon what was being previously pushed aside. Fifty years later and Amnesty International has developed into one of the world’s main organisations to battle against abuses of human rights.

There are many reasons why I became a member of Amnesty International, but the most significant factor is that Amnesty is completely separate from political and corporate sectors of work. This gives AI the ability to act without going through the government such as to put pressure upon international governments if they don’t abide by human rights. By having this freedom, AI have their own standards and policies that don’t alternate for any political or economic reason. They hold a clear set of goals and policies that won’t differ if an alternative party were in power or for financial gain. These are the reasons why I firstly became a member.

I re-joined AI due to the growing refugee crisis. I became aware of the extent of the growing refugee problem through an online source, however, I was shocked when there wasn’t any acknowledgment of this on the news and even worse, that this problem was being ignored by our own  UK Government. AI works closely with refugees. From this, I knew that AI was the right organisation as they portrayed the whole picture but there was also a discussion on how we can all unite to change this.

This is also why I am volunteering for Wales for Peace, there are many ordinary people within Wales who share this international solidarity. To discover the fundamental hidden stories of Wales in terms of international solidarity would create a rich history of ordinary people coming together to create something positive and changing. This is important as typically the hidden histories of ordinary people aren’t presented within the media because they are lacking a household name. However, their stories are important; as a united effort Wales has shown support to international topics to lead to a change.

Listed below are reasons why many people, such as myself, have become a member of Amnesty International.

1. Independent Organisation

AI is a non-governmental organisation that acts to end the abuse of human rights. They demand this through gaining justice, dignity and truth for those whom human rights have been breached. Amnesty International isn’t linked with any other organisation, this includes governments, religions and companies. This is good because it gives them more freedom to put pressure on governments, in terms of letters and protests, to stop restricting the rights of people without causing any political, economic or religious outcry. This is important as potential it could prevent the work of AI. Because they are an independent organisation, the criticism from leaders Idi Amin, Ayatollah combined with the Chinese Communist Party would cause enough of a stir for other organisations to stop Amnesty International. Successively through the past 50 years, Amnesty has for gained global political influence. Amnesty’s lobbying led to the UK government passing the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings in 2008, and more recently agreeing to make women’s rights in Afghanistan.

2. Long term Project with clear aim

Through not being linked to a corporate and governmental organisation they have complete independence to act accordingly to their policies, which is listed as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. A core principle of Amnesty is a focus on prisoners of conscience. This is a person is detained for expressing any opinion that isn’t the same as the people in power. There are also another 5 main other objectives that Amnesty deals with the rights of women, children, minorities and indigenous rights, ending torture practices, the abolition of the death penalty, the rights of refugees and protection of human objectivity. By having these clear principles, they appeal almost universally and this gains a lot of support and awareness for Amnesty. This ultimately leads to making a difference, whether its just for one person or for a community they have been successful in the long run. Over the past several years they have achieved to secure an international Arms Trade Treaty in 2013, the International Criminal Court in 2002, and a global convention against torture in 1984. Amnesty International tackle difficult and complex issues that aren’t ‘quick wins’, year on year they campaigned for human rights in Burma and in the last 12 months of 2015 hundreds of political prisoners have been freed.

3. Evokes ordinary people worldwide to unite to make a change for the better of human development

By the creation of AI people can unite and express an act of international solitude. Through their 7 million memberships there are various roles within the organisation which enables all types of people to act as a way of international solidarity. There is a wide spectrum of AI supporters, varying from ordinary people to celebrities such as Eddie Izzard, Madonna to international Amnesty supporters such as Desmond Tutu and Malala Yousafzai to ordinary people, like me. However, who you are doesn’t matter when we can all strive together to stop future injustices from happening again.

With activists and volunteers in more than 150 countries, AI has been able to investigate, mobilise and change societies for better human development and security. Using their memberships and donations they have industrialised into the world’s largest pressure group allowing them to contact governments, organise protests and publicise human rights abuses in the media.

4. Campaign has proven to work

Amnesty is one of the world’s most influential, non-governmental organisations with a track record of success. Their campaigning work has been proved to be successfully through the use of their members

AI act in different ways. For instance, the form of protesting and petitioning. This has been proved to be effective. They successfully pressured Shell to pay out over Niger Delta oil spills in 2008 and 2009. After two years of pressure and letter writing of Amnesty supporters, Myanmar’s community leader Dr Tun Aung was released in January after being imprisoned for trying to calm down a crowd of riots in 2012. There has been various stories of successful campaigning from Amnesty which has caused significant changes to individuals worldwide.

5. Extensive research that is trust worthy

AI’s research is underpinned in the field but having first witnesses accounts and survivors testimonies with forensic data by using tools satellite images where possibly. They also cross check their research with other network resources and experts to make sure it is watertight. Their research is even valuable for external use, such as international bodies like the United Nations, media reporters and investigators as well as other campaigning and human right organisations. By having trust-worthy sources, people can start to grasp the truth behind these societies. This isn’t possible without AI as traditionally our mainstream medias tend to be biased and therefore they arguably showcase evidence in favour to their own belief such as the BBC and Gaza. Through AI, people can explore this watertight evidence and research and come to their own conclusions.

By being born in London, there are more open opportunities to protests which are publicly shown acts of international solidarity. They are traditionally broadcast throughout the online community and local newspapers This is normally where they gain their mass support.

Since moving to Bangor in North Wales, I have found that this type of action wasn’t as publicly displayed or spoke about among the community. This doesn’t mean that there wasn’t any act of international solidarity, it was just underrepresented and hidden from the community. Wales has had a long track history of supporting international countries by protesting or gathering support for the cause. Therefore, by complying Wales hidden histories of acts of international solidarity, it has allowed this rich history to be rediscovered and illustrated back to the community to inspire future generations. These hidden histories will be interviews from ordinary people in Wales and what they believe ‘international solidarity’ means to them personally and what acts of solidarity they have accomplished in the Welsh community. It is crucial to discover the hidden histories of ordinary people.

References:

Peter Benenson. (28 May. 2011) “The Forgotten Prisoners”. The Observer

 

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COLLI BYS DROS HEDDWCH

Gan Bethan Siân Jones

Yn ystod y Rhyfel Oer ym Mhrydain, cyflwynwyd strategaethau amddiffyn sifil, a bu adeiladu bynceri yn un ohonynt. Ym 1985 derbyniodd Cyngor Dosbarth Caerfyrddin grant o £45,000 gan y Swyddfa Gartref i adeiladu byncer gwerth £60,000. Byddai’r byncer ond yn darparu lloches ar gyfer wyth person – a bwriad y Cyngor oedd defnyddio arian trethdalwyr i dalu gweddill y £15,000. Yn nodweddiadol, heb ganiatâd cynllunio, dechreuodd y Cyngor adeiladu’r byncer mewn ardal a oedd i fod yn ddi-niwclear. Yn wir, erbyn 1982 roedd pob awdurdod lleol yng Nghymru wedi’i ddatgan yn ardaloedd di-niwclear gan wneud Cymru oll yn wlad ddi-niwclear. Sbarduniwyd ymgyrch gan bobl gyffredin Caerfyrddin a oedd yn gwrthwynebu’r byncer, ac fe’i gelwid yn Ymgyrch Gwrth-Fyncer Caerfyrddin. Atynnodd yr ymgyrch gefnogaeth a chyfranogaeth oddi ar lu o bobl amrywiol, yn lleol ac yn genedlaethol. Ymgyrch graff ydoedd gan nid yn unig oedd yn gwrthwynebu’r byncer yn foesol, ond mi oedd hefyd yn ei wrthwynebu ar sail gyfreithiol, o ganlyniad i ddiffyg caniatâd cynllunio’r Cyngor.

Yn nyddiau cynnar yr ymgyrch, aeth y protestwyr ati i feddiannu’r byncer er mwyn atal ei adeiladwaith. Cysgon nhw ar sylfaeni concrid y byncer am ychydig o wythnosau gan wrthod symud. Derbynion nhw ymwelwyr cyson gan gynnwys Maer Caerfyrddin a ddaeth â sglodion i’r meddianwyr gyda’r nos. Ymddangosodd baneri CND enfawr y tu allan i ambell i ffenestr mewn adeiladau’r Cyngor, hyd yn oed! Er roeddent yno i amddiffyn y byncer, bu swyddogion diogelwch y Cyngor yn llac iawn gyda’r protestwyr – gan ganiatáu iddynt fynd i mewn i ardal adeiladu’r byncer er mwyn protestio.

TRAIS

Ar ôl i’r protestwyr bod wrthi am wythnosau’n meddiannu’r byncer, cael eu herlid wnaethant, ac yna cafodd y byncer ei feddiannu unwaith eto. Ar ôl cyfres o ddadleuon yn y llys, llwyddodd y Cyngor i roi caniatâd cynllunio i’w hunain. Cododd y Cyngor ffens 12 troedfedd o amgylch y byncer a diswyddodd ei swyddogion diogelwch gan logi cwmni preifat yn ei le. Cwmni diogelwch Pritchards oedd y cwmni newydd, ac yn flaenorol roeddent wedi bod yn gweithio yn Ne Affrica yn ystod Apartheid. Er mai protestio trwy ddulliau heddychlon wnaeth protestwyr Ymgyrch-Gwrth Fyncer Caerfyrddin, cafodd cŵn a thrais eu defnyddio yn eu herbyn er mwyn amddiffyn y byncer. Cafodd un protestiwr ei daro ar gefn ei wddf gan swyddog diogelwch ac wrth iddo gwympo i’r llawr, brathodd ci diogelwch ei goes. Mewn achos arall, cafodd cynghorydd ei frathu gan gi diogelwch ar y ffordd yn ôl i’w gar ym maes parcio’r Cyngor. Yn eironig, roedd y cynghorydd wedi bod yn dadlau yn erbyn adeiladu’r byncer mewn trafodaeth dwy awr o hyd yn union cyn yr ymosodiad. Yn ôl atgofion y protestwyr a fu’n rhan o Ymgyrch Gwrth-Fyncer Caerfyrddin, y menywod a dderbyniodd y trais gwaethaf. Cafodd cyhuddiadau eu gwneud yn erbyn swyddogion diogelwch Pritchards am gyffwrdd â menywod yn anweddus tra’n eu symud oddi ar safle’r byncer. Yr achos mwyaf erchyll o drais oedd achos Dr Sue Pester. Mewn protest fawr yn Ionawr 1986, dringodd Sue’r ffens a oedd yn amgylchu’r byncer. Ei reswm oedd cael golwg well ar yr hyn a oedd yn digwydd oherwydd roedd ei ffrind ar safle’r byncer gyda’r swyddogion diogelwch. Yn sydyn, teimlodd ei hun yn cael ei thynnu wisg ei chefn gan rym anferthol swyddog diogelwch. Wrth gael ei thynnu i’r llawr, daeth ei bysedd yn sownd yn y ffens, ond parhaodd y swyddog diogelwch ei thynnu nes rhwygo un o’i bysedd i ffwrdd. Cofiodd Sue’r ddigwyddiad fel a ganlyn:

“When I saw that I had lost my finger I knew that I would need treatment. A couple of people around me came to my aid. People started shouting. I was very concerned because I’m a very small woman, I’m only 5ft tall, the security guard who had injured me was a tall man. I could see that could be a situation which could easily escalate into violence, and that was what we had been determined right from the outset wouldn’t happen. So my first thought was to try and stay calm, to make sure the situation was calm, to reassure people that I was OK while a couple of friends helped me to get round to the front of the building where an ambulance could be accessed. So it was a question of trying to reassure people, keep calm. Perhaps I needed to keep calm too. It was quite a shocking experience… and to try and get some medical help, but I didn’t want to be carried off – I walked but with somebody on each side who was just assisting me so I didn’t fall or anything. And I tried to hold my hand to stop the bleeding.”

Yn ddiweddarach, cafodd Sue achos llys preifat yn erbyn y cwmni diogelwch am ei hanafiadau. Bu’r achos yn aflwyddiannus. Gwadodd y swyddog diogelwch ei bod wedi achosi niwed corfforol iddi. Honnodd ei bod wedi mynd at Sue tra oedd ar y ffens er mwyn ei chynnal a’i hatal rhag syrthio i’r ddaear. Ni dderbyniodd Sue unrhyw gyfiawnder am ei hanafiadau a chafodd y mater ei anwybyddu gan Margaret Thatcher yn ogystal. Serch hynny, mi atynnodd stori Sue lawer o sylw gan y cyhoedd. Yn wir, teithiodd y bardd R.S Thomas i lawr o Ogledd Cymru i Gaerfyrddin ar ôl iddo glywed am hanes Sue. Eisteddodd y bardd wrth ochr y byncer gyda’i draed yn hongian drosti er mwyn gweld os byddai’n cael ei arestio neu beidio.

Rhoddodd y Cyngor y gorau i adeiladu’r byncer, ac ni ddefnyddiwyd erioed. Mae’n dal i fodoli ym maes parcio Cyngor Dosbarth Caerfyrddin. Daeth ei wariant i £400,000 o’i gymharu â’i swm gwreiddiol o £60,000. Yn ôl pob sôn, mi oedd y byncer yn gollwng dŵr blynyddoedd wedyn – sydd wir yn cwestiynu’i effeithlonrwydd mewn rhyfel niwclear wedi’r cwbl! Er nad oedd y protestwyr wedi atal y byncer rhag cael ei adeiladu, mi oeddent yn llwyddiannus yn y modd wnaethant atynnu sylw’r cyhoedd at y paratoadau roedd y Deyrnas Unedig yn ei wneud tuag at ryfel niwclear. Pwysig ydyw i gydnabod aberth a dewrder yr unigolion yma.

I gloi gyda dyfyniad gan Sue:

“…it’s not something I would have volunteered to have happened to me because, actually the loss of a finger, it does effect a number of things to do with your hand and it’s extremely inconvenient and sometimes still quite painful. But, in the scheme of things, the loss of a little finger compared to a nuclear war doesn’t really weigh up!”

Making a stand: William Trevor Jones of Pontyberem (1901-75)

By Jeffrey Mansfield

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Trevor with his wife and daughter, Rhinedd

“If the right to life is the first of all human rights, being the one on which all other rights depend, the right to refuse to kill must be the second.”

– Memorial stone to Conscientious Objectors

Temple of Peace, Cardiff

If you were asked to name the people and places associated with the search for peace during the 1930s, you probably wouldn’t mention William Trevor Jones of Pontyberem.

Yet some of the most important players in the peace movement were all guests at the Pontyberem home of William Trevor Jones – coal-miner, Christian, Labour Party activist and conscientious objector (CO) in the Second World War.

George Lansbury, Clement Attlee, Scott Nearing, and Canadian journalist Douglas Carr, all visited Trevor, as he was known.

With kind help from Rhinedd Rees, Trevor’s daughter, and her husband Alban we are able to reveal the hidden history of Trevor’s life and his experiences as a C/O. It is a cameo of industrial south Wales at the time.

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Trevor then (left), daughter Rhinedd now, with husband Alban (right)

Early life

A coal-miner at age 14, he joined the Independent Labour Party (ILP) in 1918 after hearing an election speech by local Labour candidate, Dr. Williams. Asked to set up a branch of the ILP, he recruited four other colliers, and was elected Secretary.

He resumed his education by taking adult education classes and almost gained a scholarship to Oxford, failing by only one mark. During 1926 he supported the General Strike and acted as Secretary to the Children’s Distress Committee. When his ILP branch decided to join the (new) Labour Party in 1928, he was elected to Pontyberem Parish Council, on which he served until 1969.

In 1930 he attended Coleg Harlech to continue his education but had to leave after one year and return to Pontyberem after his father was killed in the colliery. He later said that his time at Coleg Harlech had been a great influence on him and made him more capable of service to society.

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Trevor at Coleg Harlech, highlighted in the bottom row

Between 1934 and 1935, Trevor’s Labour group were active in promoting the Peace Ballot in their region, and he began serving as Trades and Labour Council Secretary.

Though he came from an Anglican family he did not approve of what he felt was a militarist stance by the Church, and on marriage he became a Welsh Independent.

War breaks out

At the outbreak of World War Two in September 1939 Trevor was employed as an Insurance Inspector with the Co-op Insurance Group.

The National Service (Armed Forces) Act was passed into law, requiring all males aged between 18 and 41 to register for military service. Registration was by age group and took a long time, so it wasn’t until June 1941 that 40-year-olds were registering. Trevor’s 40th birthday was on 17th May 1941 – his time to register was imminent.

However, as a committed Christian, he decided to apply to register as a Conscientious Objector (CO) on religious grounds.

The application

His application was received at the Ministry of Labour and National Service in Cardiff on 13th June 1941, just one day before the deadline. The original papers pertaining to his application, kindly provided by Rhinedd, give a fascinating insight into the process.

He begins with a statement of his Christian values:

“As a professed Christian and a humanitarian, I profoundly and conscientiously believe that War, in all its aspects, is in direct contradiction to the Life and Teaching of Jesus Christ.”

He states his conviction that only by following Jesus can Man be liberated:

“The salvation of mankind does not lie in the way of force.”

Finally, he claims his moral right to the dictates of his own conscience and stands:

“On the firm conviction that to me each man is a potential Christ.”

The hearing

His application was heard by the Local Tribunal in Carmarthen on 18th July 1941. We have no record of what was said, but it is known that these hearings could be hostile and often tried to persuade, guide or command the applicants into some form of service.

Interviewed in 1972, Trevor said he was expected to leave his job with the insurance company and go back to the mine. Mining was a ‘reserved occupation’ and miners of his age were exempt from conscription, but he refused to do so because he didn’t believe it was right for him to take another collier’s job, which would have subsequently meant that collier having to join the army instead.

The application was granted and he was registered unconditionally in the Register of Conscientious Objectors, effective 23 July 1941. He said in 1972 that he felt he had ‘got off lightly’ in front of Judge Frank Davies at Caerfyrddin.

Aftermath

Like other COs he encountered rejection. Rhinedd recounts that some people spat on him, and threw stones on the roof when he was addressing meetings. But despite undercurrents of hostility, he had support in his chapel, where there were other COs, and he was elected Deacon. He continued working with the Insurance, which he could not have done had he been shunned. He was even asked to provide references, evidence that he was recognised as a man of conscience.

But the whole experience took its toll: after the war he became less confident and suffered a nervous breakdown, giving up his job as Inspector to become an ordinary Agent.

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Trevor in his later years

Final thoughts

The coalfields, the Independent Labour Party, and the religious faith which nurtured Trevor have now either disappeared or are less visible in society. But the courage which he and other COs showed is everlasting and serves as an example to us all.

“Mae Alban, Catrin, Anwen a finnau yn ymfalchio yn fawr ar ei safiad a’i ddewrder ar gyfnod anodd iawn. Roedd yn berson egwyddorol ac roedd yn barod i wrthwynebu anghyfiawnder a chasineb yn erbyn cyd-ddyn.Bu’n driw i’w ddaliadau trwy gydol ei oes.”

-Rhinedd Rees, Hydref 2017

“Alban, Catrin, Anwen and I are very proud of the stand he made and his bravery during a very difficult period. He was a very principled person and was ready to oppose injustice and hatred against his fellow man. He was true to his beliefs throughout his life.”

-Rhinedd Rees, October 2017

Thank you to  Rhinedd for your involvement with this piece and the family photographs.

Temple Tales #4: Back to the Future at the Garden of Peace

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How the Valleys Inspired a World of Free Healthcare

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‘Aneurin Bevan visiting a patient in hospital’

Lasting peace is not just about preventing war but also about creating a fair and just world. WCIA volunteer Sophie Champion tells us how one community worked together to improve access to healthcare for all…

We all know the National Health Service very well, and most of us have received free healthcare under the service. But how many of us know where the idea came from, or the community that was the test-run for the idea? It was in fact a mining town in Wales that spurred Aneurin Bevan on to form a health service that the whole of the United Kingdom could use.

The NHS takes its roots from the Tredegar Medical Aid Society, which was formed following a merging of a number of societies in Tredegar, a mining town in the South Wales valleys. Many of these societies offered services such as funeralcare and medical benefits, and brought the community together through a sense of collective responsibility.

The success of the society led to Aneurin Bevan’s case for a National Health Service, which would go on to help the lives of millions of people living in the United Kingdom.

Beginnings

Tredegar Workmen’s Medical Aid and Sick Relief Fund

The end of the 19th century in Tredegar saw a system of organised labour which provided basic health care through a network of societies, trade unions, and insurance companies.

In 1890, a variety of local societies merged together, forming the Tredegar Workmen’s Medical Aid and Sick Relief Fund. Some of the services included medical and funeral expenses offered to its 3,000 members. This allowed the society to continue to grow, eventually into a hospital in 1904, which was known as Cottage Hospital, in Tredegar town.

The land was donated by Lord Tredegar and the Tredegar Iron and Coal Company and various other philanthropists, while the running costs were financed by the workers themselves, through half-penny a week contributions, which increased to a penny a week by 1909.

Tredegar Medical Aid Society

The success of the society continued to grow, and the hospital began offering healthcare to non-members, such as the wives and children of members, the elderly, and workers in other trades in the town such as railwaymen, teachers, shopkeepers and more. Miners and steelworkers paid a weekly fee of 2d in each £ of their wages while ‘town subscribers’ paid 18s a year. The society’s offices were based at 10 The Circle in Tredegar town, a building that still stands today.

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‘The original sign of the Tredegar Medical Society. Photo by Sophie Champion’

Notable People

Aneurin Bevan

· Whilst Bevan did not found the Tredegar Medical Aid Society, he joined the Cottage Hospital Management Committee around 1928 and became chairman in 1929–30.

· Bevan holds great importance in the Tredegar Medical Aid Society and the history of the National Health Service in general, as he brought the ideas he saw practiced within the Tredegar Medical Aid Society to the British Government, confident that a healthcare system on a national scale was possible.

When the National Health System was launched, Bevan declared:

‘All I am doing is extending to the entire population the benefits we had in Tredegar for a generation or more. We are going to Tredegar-ise you’.

Walter Conway

· Conway was born into poverty and orphaned at a young age.

· He began working in a workhouse and became friends with Aneurin Bevan, both of whom later joined the Query Club in 1920.

· He was appointed secretary of the Tredegar Medical Aid Society in 1915.

· Conway was more than just a friend to Bevan, he was a mentor and teacher to him and assisted Bevan in ridding himself of a disabling stammer.

· This allowed Bevan the confidence to go on to deliver inspiring, passionate speeches, that would persuade members of the British government to implement a free health care system.

Conway’s memory lives on in both Tredegar and on a wider scale. A street in Cefn Golau is named after him: Walter Conway Avenue, and the character Owen in the novel The Citadel, written by a former doctor at the Tredegar Medical Aid Society, A.J. Cronin, is named after him.

Lord Tredegar

· Lord Tredegar was a keen philanthropist in the area, and donated land that would be used to build the Cottage Hospital, ran by the Tredegar Medical Aid Society.

Without the generosity of individuals such as Lord Tredegar, or the commitment of members such as Walter Conway, who demonstrated community values, the Tredegar Medical Aid Society might never have been as successful, or efficient, as it was.

The community as a whole

· Although individuals such as Bevan and Conway are commonly associated with the success of the society, it is also important to note the contributions made by members of the community.

· The local people would meet at the society’s offices at 10 The Circle, developing ideas and strategies to improve the society.

The involvement of the local people in the society’s development and running helps demonstrate the community values that the Tredegar Medical Aid Society demonstrated, and the important role the community were given in the management of their society.

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‘The original safe which stored the membership payments paid by those who used the Tredegar Medical Aid Society’. Photo by Sophie Champion.

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‘The money would be used to maintain the society, such as for paying doctors’ and nurses’ salaries, and buying equipment’. Photo by Sophie Champion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notable buildings

The Tredegar Medical Aid Society was based at two buildings: the Cottage Hospital and 10 The Circle:

· The Cottage Hospital was situated in the heart of Tredegar town, and the land to build it was donated by local businessman Lord Tredegar. The hospital provided healthcare to the town’s population, and employed a number of healthcare professionals, including doctors and nurses.

· 10 The Circle was home to the society’s executive offices, wherein the secretary, Walter Conway, would work, and much of the decisions about how the society was

ran were taken here. Members of the executive would gather in the meeting rooms, discussing the running of the society, and local people would attend meetings, sharing opinions and advice on how to run the service efficiently.

How Did the War influence the Formation of the NHS?

During the aftermath of the Second World War British people sought a better future, for both them and their children, and aimed to achieve this by working collectively. There was also an aim of securing better lives for the working class, and a free health care service that discriminated against no one was instrumental in achieving this.

The Benefits of Working Together

The Dalai Lama once stated that, “when we have inner peace, we can be at peace with those around us. When our community is in a state of peace, it can share that peace with neighboring communities,” and this quote can be held true to the success of the Tredegar Medical Aid Society.

Before its creation, residents of Tredegar were forced to fund their own health care, to look after only themselves. Whenever an individual was unable to pay for their healthcare, they would find themselves on their own, perhaps they did not have enough money, or enough friends, to pay for their medical costs.

This could leave the individual marginalised, disadvantaged, and alone. Their physical health could worsen, and this could impact their mental health too.

Moreover, those able to cover their healthcare costs might adopt a mindset where they could separate themselves from their community, caring only for themselves. This sense of individualism could diminish the whole idea of ‘community’ and the values that come with it.

But an organisation like the Tredegar Medical Aid Society instilled the town of Tredegar with community values and the responsibility for people to look out for one another.

With a system that requires members to pay in each week and year to cover the whole of their medical costs and support the upkeep of the society, this encouraged the people of Tredegar to unite and work together to support each other’s health and wellbeing.

This unity was then introduced on a wider scale, as in accordance with the Dalai Lama’s quote, wherein the present day millions of British citizens pay into a health system that the whole population can use for free.

In his books, including In Place of Fear, Bevan made a number of allusions to the peace and harmony a universal healthcare service would bring to communities and society as a whole.

“Society becomes more wholesome, more serene, and spiritually healthier, if it knows that its citizens have at the back of their consciousness the knowledge that not only themselves, but all their fellows, have access, when ill, to the best that medical skill can provide. Society will be peaceful and happier if we support each other.”

Aneurin Bevan, In Place of Fear, Chapter 5

References

● Aneurin Bevan, In Place of Fear

● Information and access to items pictured provided by Geoff Thomas, from Time Banking Wales, based at 10 The Circle, Tredegar ● Wales Online: http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/health/going-tredegar-ise-you-bevan-told-2187499

● Tredegar.co.uk: https://www.tredegar.co.uk/history/#Tredegar Cottage Hospital

● Do One Thing.org: http://www.doonething.org/quotes/community-quotes.htm

 

 

 

Cynhadledd Ysgolion Cymru dros Heddwch | Wales for Peace Schools Conference

By  Mushfik Khan

The 4th Wales for Peace annual school conference was held this year on the 20th of September at the Pierhead in Cardiff Bay.

Wales for Peace itself is a 4-year heritage lottery funded project located in the Temple of Peace at the Welsh Centre for International Affairs in Cardiff. The main aim of this project is to learn about Wales’ peace heritage over the last century and to inspire the youth of Wales to research and discover the ‘hidden histories’ on how Wales as a nation over the decades has worked towards securing peace. This year’s event named ‘Young People Voicing Peace’, was primarily focused on young people from a total of nine schools located in Cardiff and surrounding areas who shared digital stories they had produced with Ffotgallery on different themes relating to peace. The conference therefore began by asking the question,

“In the 100 years since World War 1, how has Wales contributed to the search for peace?”

 Elin Jones, Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales opened the conference with a welcoming speech.

David Hughes the European Commissioner for Wales then gave a short speech in which peacehe spoke of Wales’ voice in Europe. Mr Hughes emphasised how not only are we living in uncertain and “dangerous times” globally due to ongoing conflicts but in the United Kingdom, young people face an uncertain future due to Brexit. He explained how important cooperation and openness were in maintaining peace not only now but in the future as he stated, “those who forget history, are condemned to repeat it”.

The next stage of the conference involved the students sharing their digital stories in front of the audience of volunteers, teachers and fellow students. The stories touched upon a number of topics such as refugees and asylum seekers, women, war and peace and the voice of young people. One of the digital stories involved the students asking younger students what the word peace meant to them and one student responded with, “when everyone is happy and gets along” whereas another took a completely different approach to interpreting the word peace and stated, “I think when you be quiet, like in a library”, which received some chuckles around the room.

Before the break for lunch, the students had a chance to aytend various workshops and to explore themes such as, Wales as a nation of sanctuary, Wales and international cooperation, women’s role in peace making and the voice of young people in creating a peaceful Wales. The workshop which I attended was the voice of young people in creating a peaceful Wales and this workshop contained a series of activities which were designed to educate the students on the governmental process within Wales and it also encouraged them to be vocal and share their opinions. The students were asked questions like, “are politicians doing enough for peace” to which the majority responded no, stating that there are “still wars going on” and that the politicians could “always do better”. After the workshops, the groups regathered and shared what they did in their workshops and what they have learnt from them.

poppioes

The lunch break took place in the Senedd where there was an opportunity for the students to view the Poppies Weeping Willow exhibition and the Wales for Peace exhibition on Women, War and Peace which featured photos taken by photojournalist Lee Karen Stow.

The exhibition featured stories from women who had been affected by war or from those who had campaigned for peace.

To finish off the conference, there was a panel event which also included a member for the National Assembly for Wales, Ann Jones. The students were able to ask any questions displayregarding what they had learnt or heard throughout the day. This was a great way to end a great conference which allowed the students to  learn about Wales’ peace heritage and got them to think about what they as the future generation can do to ensure that Wales continues to strive for peace.

Eisteddfod | Ynys Mon | 2017

Pic of Mared for her blog.jpg

Gan Mared Jones

Mi roeddwn yn gwirfoddoli yn yr Eisteddfod ym Môn 2017 am dri diwrnod o fewn y Babell Heddwch. Yn fy amser yno, roeddwn yn ffocysu yn bennaf ar hanes cudd/hanes pobl arferol, a chysylltu hynny gyda’r rhyfel byd cyntaf oherwydd bod yr Eisteddfod yma yn dathlu 100 mlynedd ers cadeirio Hedd Wyn. Er hynny, gwnaethom ni gymryd ongl wahanol ohono, sef ffocysu ar hanes merched yn ystod y rhyfel, a gofyn y cwestiwn os oedd y rhyfel wedi cyfrannu at gydraddoldeb rhwng marched a dynion. I wneud hyn, gefais y dasg i grwydro o gwmpas y maes i chwilota am bobl a bysa yn fodlon rhoi ei barn bersonol nhw am y mater. Gwnes I ymweld rhai o’r pabelli a bysa efalle yn cynnwys pobl gyda barn ddiddorol am y mater, e.e.. pabell ffeministiaeth, LGBT, pabelli brifysgolion a.y.b.. Cefais ymateb llwyddiannus iawn, a gwnes i lwyddo i gael cyfweliad gyda thua saith person, pob un ohonyn nhw gydag atebion a barn ddiddorol i’w rhoi ymlaen.

Pic to go with Mared blog .jpg

 

Gwnes i ddysgu llawer am yr hanes wrth wneud y dasg yma, ond yn bennaf gwnes i ddysgu llawer o sgiliau cymdeithasol, ac roedd hynny yn rhywbeth roeddwn angen yn rheolaidd yn ystod fy amser yn yr Eisteddfod.Roedd llawer o adegau ble roedd oedolion neu blant yn dod i mewn i’r babell, ac yn gofyn cwestiynau am y sefydliad, yn ogystal â chwestiynau’r am yr hanes roeddwn yn ffocysu arno, yn ogystal a holi am y wahanol gyfleoedd oedd ar gael gyda Chymry Dros Heddwch, e.e.. trawsgrifio enwau o’r cofnodion o’r milwyr o’r gorffennol. Gwnes I hefyd wneud ambell i dasg fwy syml, e.e.. helpu gyda gweithgareddau plant, helpu gwneud y stondin edrych yn daclus ac apelgar, gwasgaru pamffledi a.y.b.. Gwnes I ffeindio amser i wneud ychydig o drawsgrifio fy hun hefyd. Roedd hyn yn dasg ddiddorol, a hefyd yn helpu fi i ddod i arfer gyda’r wefan, felly os bysa unrhyw un o’r ymwelwyr yn cymryd diddordeb ynddo, baswn i yn medru dangos iddynt sut i wneud y trawsgrifio, a bysa hynny wedyn yn hwb iddyn nhw barhau gyda’r dasg yn amser ei hunain.

At the National Eisteddfod, Mared discovered some interesting peace stories involving the role of women in the war. As a Wales for Peace volunteer, Mared also introduced people to the project and the website as well as helping to run the stall in the Peace tent.