Michael Beya recounts his meeting with Hanif Bhamjee, founder of the Wales Anti-Apartheid Movement.
Upon my arrival at the Temple of Peace where the Welsh Centre for International Affairs (WCIA) is based, I began researching the Anti-Apartheid Movement in Wales.
In the early 1960s people globally were becoming much more aware of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (often shortened to ‘AAM’). By this time apartheid was reaching its peak.
AAM campaigners were grabbing opportunities to abolish apartheid using all means possible, including the involvement of schools, churches, political groups, local communities and sports organisations.
I was interested in what I understood was the Welsh Rugby Union’s (WRU) involvement in the campaign of boycotting all activities related to South Africa and urging South Africa to be banned from international sporting events.
This is how I became aware of a man who was a prominent AAM activist living here in Cardiff – Hanif Bhamjee. I met with Mr Bhamjee and asked him about his role and activities within the movement and also about the WRU’s contribution to the AAM.
What Mr Bhamjee told me contradicted my understanding of what happened.
During our interview he told me about protests he was involved in when rugby teams from South Africa played in Wales. He said they picketed games, and in some cases smoke-bombed pitches. He told me that the teams began including 3 or 4 black players, to give what he says was the impression of being multi-racial. But he said the movement knew that generally these players were going back to South Africa to play in black teams, not the national team.
Mr Bhamjee told me about discussions that took place between the WRU and the AAM, how in 1982 the WRU had decided it would no longer tour South Africa as an international team, but that rugby connections would continue between the two countries for a few years to come.
I spent an hour with Mr Bhamjee, and he didn’t just talk about rugby. I was impressed by his own experiences in Wales as an anti-apartheid campaigner; experiences that had nothing to do with rugby.
He told me that his early history in South Africa was important. He had been involved in the movement for a long time, and had met Nelson Mandela and others in the movement when he was 10 years old.
Mr Bhamjee had then moved to Birmingham, UK, and became involved in the AAM there. He moved to Wales and was surprised that the movement only really existed in Cardiff; there were small groups in Swansea and Newport, but no Welsh organisation. He said it was painstaking work.
“There was a lot of racism”, and that this was all over the UK. “There were signs in the windows” he said, saying, “no Blacks…no Irish. Room to let. But if a black man or an Asian guy went for it, it was suddenly gone.” He said that he and his colleagues had tested this theory with some white friends.
He told me how the AAM in Wales grew, developing groups in Merthyr, Wrexham and Denbigh. By about 1989 they had 22 branches in 22 cities and towns.
With this momentum, the movement demonstrated not only about rugby, but started boycotting products, like South African fruit and vegetables. “You’d be amazed at the kind of stuff that was coming in here” he said, “from tools – like spades – and knives and forks.”
During the interview with Mr Bhamjee it emerged that a rebellious spirit grew in him; he viewed the AAM as something that left him out of the circle; he felt forgotten, which left him very disappointed.
He felt that his efforts, time and dedication that he had offered were left unrewarded. He couldn’t afford to go back to South Africa to find a job in the country of his origin, which he had fought for, for more than half a century.
I was also interested to know how Mr Bhamjee viewed the movement now, as active or passive. He told me that it was over, and that the movement was almost discontinued.
I asked him about how he felt when Nelson Mandela walked out of prison with his fist in the air, if their expectations were too high? He told me that when Mandela and others were released from Robben Island they were saying the right things, but that as time went Bhamjee began to have reservations about progress being made.
“When he came out in 1990, him and the leadership – all of whom were released from Robben Island – were all saying the right things, but as time progressed – 1991, 92…96 – you could see a dramatic shift in their views, and people don’t like to hear this…And then he retired early and nobody could understand why. Some people said it was due to illness, but as soon as he retired the situation got even worse.”
Mr Bhamjee went on to refer to another senior member of the Party and his unhappiness and dissatisfaction with the direction he took.
I went on to ask him – as a key anti-Apartheid campaigner – if he had ever thought of going back to South Africa. Here’s what he told me:
“I applied for jobs. I applied for jobs in the legal field, the diplomatic field because I was a lawyer…I didn’t get any interviews. Then there was – years later – they were forming a legal aid board in South Africa so I applied for a job there. And the woman in charge said you’ll get it because you’ve worked with legal aid firms…she phoned me up a few days before the interview and said sorry, higher authorities have decided we couldn’t shortlist you.…I wanted to go back.”
I asked him: did you feel forgotten, after all you’ve done for the AAM, all the links you had with the ANC (African National Congress, a political party)? Now you go back home looking for a job, you couldn’t find one. Were you disappointed?
Mr Bhamjee said “Yes, I was. I was extremely disappointed. And I still am.”
It was an interesting meeting and interview with Mr Bhamjee. I am happy I met with him, learning about his experiences and thoughts about the AAM, past and present.
These are Mr Bhamjee’s opinions and his perspective on events as he witnessed them.
As I reflected on my time spent with Mr Bhamjee – and how I had my preconceived ideas corrected – I understood that there was much more discussion, research and debate to be held. Perhaps someone reading this will be among those who contribute. Any readers who have ideas or information not discussed here are welcome to contribute to further debate on the AAM.
For more information on the work of Hanif Bhamjee and Action for Southern Africa Cymru (the successor to the Wales Anti-Apartheid Movement) click here
For more on the history of the Anti-Apartheid Movement in UK, including Wales click here